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TOEFL Reading Gratis 1

Questions 1-8

   With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of modern sculpture in the United States. Direct carving-in which the sculptors themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel-must be recognized as something more than just a technique. Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony. For example, sometimes the shapes or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter.
   With the turn-of-the-century crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new large for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium. Even as early as the 1880’s and 1890’s, nonconformist European artists were attempting direct carving. by the second decade of the twentieth century, Americans – Laurent Zorach most notably-had adopted it as their primary means of working.The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth-century tradition in which the making of a clay model was considered the creative art and the work was when turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble. Classical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving the finished marble.
   Born in France, Robert Laurent (1890-1970) was a prodigy who received his education in the United States. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker.
   Back in New York City by 1910, Lauren began carving pieces such as The Priestess which reveals his fascination with African, pre-Columbian, and South specific art. Taking a walnut plank, the sculptor carved the expressive, stylized design. It is one of the earliest examples of direct carving in American Sculpture. The plank’s form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its irregular shape must have appealed to Laurent as a break with a long-standing tradition that required a sculptor to work within a perfect rectangle or square.

(QUESTION) The word ‘medium’ in line 4 could be used to refer to

What is one of the fundamental principles of direct carving?
The word ‘dictates’ in line 6 is closest in meaning to
How does direct carving differ from the nineteenth-century tradition of sculpture?
The word ‘witnessed’ in line 20 is closest in meaning to
Where did Robert Laurent learn to carve?
The phrase ‘a break with’ in line 26 is closest in meaning to
The piece titled The Priestess has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:

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