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TOEFL Reading Gratis 3

Question 20-30

   Before the mid-nineteenth century, people in the United States ate most foods only in season. Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the availability of fresh meat, like that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to prevent spoilage. But in 1810 a French inventor named Nicolas Appert developed the cooking-and-sealing process of canning. And in the 1850’s an American named Gail Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk. Canned goods and condensed milk became more common during the 1860’s, but supplies remained low because cans had to be made by hand. By 1880, however, inventors had fashioned stamping and soldering machines that mass-produced cans from tinplate. Suddenly all kinds of food could be preserved and bought at all timer of the year.
   Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet. Some people continued to eat mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could afford meat. Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously available fruits, vegetables, and dairy products to achieve more varied fare.Other trends and inventions had also helped make it possible for Americans to vary their daily diets. Growing urban populations created demand that encouraged fruit and vegetables farmers to raise more produce. Railroad refrigerator cars enable growers and meat peckers to ship perishables great distances and to preserve them for longer periods. Thus, by the 1890’s, northern city dwellers could enjoy southern and western strawberry, grapes, and tomatoes, previously available for a month at most, for up to six mounts of the year. In addition, increased use of iceboxes enable families to store perishables. An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invented in the 1870’s and by 1900 the nation had more than two thousand commercial ice plants, most of which made home deliveries. The icebox became a fixture in most homes and remained so until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920’s and 1930’s.

(QUESTION) What does the passage mainly discuss?

The phrase ‘in season’ in line 1 refers to
The word ‘prevent’ in line 3 is closest in meaning to
During the 1860’s, canned food products were
It can be inferred that railroad refrigerator cars came into use
The word ‘them’ in line 16 refers to
The word ‘fixture’ in line 21 is closest in meaning to
The author implies that in the 1920’s and 1930’s home deliveries of ice
The word ‘nevertheless’ in line 11 is closest in meaning to
Which of the following types of food preservation was NOT mentioned in the passage?
Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?

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